Incoterms Definitions Group F: FCA, FAS, FOB
Group F - Main carriage not paid by seller.
FCA: Free Carrier
Definition: FCA is usually followed by the place name of the initial destination of the goods, such as FCA Anchorage. The term is also referred to as “named place delivery”. Under the terms of FCA, it is the seller’s obligation to hand the goods over to the first carrier at the named place once they have been cleared for export. Using FCA Anchorage as the example, the seller would fulfill their obligation once the goods are cleared for export and delivered from the seller’s warehouse to the carrier waiting at the port of Anchorage. At this point the buyer assumes the risks and costs of any further transport executed by the first carrier.
FCA is an incremental increase in the cost and obligation to the seller from the EXW arrangement covered in the last video. Because the seller owns the goods right up to delivery, FCA arrangements allow the seller to resell the goods to someone else while the goods are still in transit. Free Carrier applies exclusively to air, rail, road, and containerized/multimodal transport.
FAS: Free Alongside Ship
Definition: Free Alongside Ship means the seller must transport the goods all the way to the dock, close enough to be reached by the crane of the ship it will be transported in. Also it is the seller’s responsibility to clear the goods for export. FAS is usually followed by a place name, for example FAS San Francisco. The place name indicates the port where the goods are to be delivered on the quay beside the carrier ship.
FAS applies exclusively to maritime and inland waterway shipping. However it does not apply to goods packaged in shipping containers. FAS is instead usually used for goods sold as bulk cargo, such as petroleum products or grain.
FOB: Free Onboard Vessel
Definition: Free Onboard Vessel is sort of a hybrid, where the seller is obligated to bring the goods all the way to the port, clear the goods for export, AND see that they are loaded onto the ship nominated by the buyer. Once the goods clear the railing of the vessel, the buyer assumes the risk.
Again, FOB is often followed by the named loading port thus: FOB Long Beach, meaning the seller delivers the goods, pays the port fees, and sees the goods loaded onto the ship docked at the port of Long Beach.
This Incoterm is used exclusively for maritime and inland waterway transport but not for container shipping.
FOB was not designed to be used for container shipping...however, colloquially it is universally used for container shipping. In the upcoming Incoterms 2020, they may change to design that FOB is to be used for container shipping as well.
A trigger is a named PL/SQL unit that is stored in the database and executed ( fired ) in response to a specified event that occurs in the database.
Overview of Triggers.
A trigger is a named program unit that is stored in the database and fired (executed) in response to a specified event. The specified event is associated with either a table, a view, a schema, or the database, and it is one of the following:
A database manipulation (DML) statement ( DELETE , INSERT , or UPDATE )
A database definition (DDL) statement ( CREATE , ALTER , or DROP )
A database operation ( SERVERERROR , LOGON , LOGOFF , STARTUP , or SHUTDOWN )
The trigger is said to be defined on the table, view, schema, or database.
A DML trigger is fired by a DML statement, a DDL trigger is fired by a DDL statement, a DELETE trigger is fired by a DELETE statement, and so on.
An INSTEAD OF trigger is a DML trigger that is defined on a view (not a table). The database fires the INSTEAD OF trigger instead of executing the triggering DML statement. For more information, see Modifying Complex Views (INSTEAD OF Triggers).
A system trigger is defined on a schema or the database. A trigger defined on a schema fires for each event associated with the owner of the schema (the current user). A trigger defined on a database fires for each event associated with all users.
A simple trigger can fire at exactly one of the following timing points :
Before the triggering statement executes.
After the triggering statement executes.
Before each row that the triggering statement affects.
After each row that the triggering statement affects.
A compound trigger can fire at more than one timing point. Compound triggers make it easier to program an approach where you want the actions you implement for the various timing points to share common data. For more information, see Compound Triggers.